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DEGAS

Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Skip to Images

"Aspects of Degas's work - mainly, his ballet paintings from the 1880S - have long been popular with a broad audience; too much so for their own good. But he has never been a "popular" artist like the wholly inferior Auguste Renoir, whose Paris-Boston retrospective in 1985 beguiled the crowds and bored everyone else. Degas was much harder to take, with his spiny intelligence (never Renoir's problem), his puzzling mixtures of categories, his unconventional cropping and, above all, his "coldness" - that icy, precise objectivity which was one of the masks of his unrelenting power of aesthetic deliberation. Besides, the long continuities of his work have not always been obvious. The figure you think he skimmed from the street like a Kodak turns out to have been there already, in Ingres or Watteau or some half-forgotten seventeenth-century draftsman who suited his purposes. Degas was the most modern of artists, but his kind of modernity, which entailed a passionate working relationship with the remote as well as the recent past, hardly exists today. How we would have bored him, with our feeble jabber of postmodernist "appropriation"!

"In his late years Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas was chatting in his studio with one of his few friends and many admirers, English painter Walter Richard Sickert. They decided to visit a café. Young Sickert got ready to summon a fiacre, a horse-drawn cab. Degas objected. "Personally, I don't like cabs. You don't see anyone. That's why I love to ride on the omnibus-you can look at people. We were created to look at one another, weren't we?"

"No passing remark could take you closer to the heart of nineteenth-century Realism: the idea of the artist as an engine for looking, a being whose destiny was to study what Balzac, in a title that declared its rebellion from the theological order of Dante's Divine Comedy, called La Comédie Humaine.

"The idea that the goal of creative effort lay outside the field of allegory and moral precept was quite new in the 1860s when Degas was coming to maturity as a painter. The highest art was still history painting, in which France had reigned supreme; but since 1855 practically the whole generation of history painters on whom this elevation depended - Paul Delaroche, Ary Scheffer, Horace Vernet and, above all, Eugéne Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres - had died, and no one seemed fit to replace them. French critics and artists alike, and conservative ones in particular, felt a tremor of crisis, as others would a century later as the masters of modernism died off. After them, what could sustain the momentum of culture? "His presence among us was a guarantee, his life a safeguard," ran Ingres's obituary in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 1867.

"And yet beyond the ruins of the temple, something else was stirring: a sense of the century as unique in itself, full of what Charles Baudelaire called the "heroism of modern life." Its chief bearers, in painting, were to be Édouard Manet and Edgar Degas.

"Born in 1834 into a rich Franco-Italian banking family with branches in Paris, Naples and New Orleans, Degas was never short of money and never doubted his vocation as a painter, in which his family encouraged him. He was a shy, insecure, aloof young man - if one did not know this from the testimony of his friends, one would gather it from his early self-portraits, with their veiled look of mannerist inwardness acquired from Pontormo - and, it seems, unusually devoid of narcissism: unlike almost every nineteenth-century painter one has heard of, he gave up painting his own face at thirty-one. It was the Other that fascinated him: all faces except his own.

"In time he would construct a formidable "character" to mask his shyness: Degas the solitary, the feared aphorist, the Great Bear of Paris. He never married - "I would have been in mortal misery all my life for fear my wife might say, 'That's a pretty little thing,' after I had finished a picture." Certainly he was not homosexual. The more likely guess is that he was impotent. If so, all the luckier for art: his libido and curiosity were channeled through his eyes.

"He had a reputation for misogyny, mainly because he rejected the hypocrisy about formal beauty embedded in the depilated Salon nudes of Bouguereau and Cabanel - ideal wax with little rosy nipples. "Why do you paint women so ugly, Monsieur Degas?" some hostess unwisely asked him. "Parce que la femme en general est laide, madame, " growled the old terror: "Because, madam, women in general are ugly."

"This was a blague. To find Degas's true feelings about women, one should consult the pastels and oil paintings of nudes that he made, at the height of his powers, in the 1880s and 1890s. Some critics still find them "clinical," because they seem to be done from a point outside the model's awareness, as though she did not know he was there and were not, actually, posing. "I want to look through the keyhole," Degas said. The bathers were "like cats licking themselves." Their bodies are radiant, worked and reworked almost to a thick crust of pastel, mat and blooming with myriad strokes within their tough winding contours. But they are also mechanisms of flesh and bone, all joints, protuberances, hollows, neither "personalities" nor pinups. (One sees why Duchamp, inventor of the mechanical bride, adored and copied Degas.) Not even Nude Woman Having Her Hair Combed, 1886-88, the most refined and classical of these nudes, seems in the least Renoiresque, although nothing could be more consummately appealing than that pink, slightly blockish body against the gold couch and the regulating white planes of peignoir and apron. It was a subject to which Degas brought special, almost fetishistic feeling, and a later version of the same theme, The Coiffure, 1896, shows what a vehicle for innovation it could be: by now the contours of the woman and her maid are roughed out with an almost Fauvist abruptness, and they emerge from a continuous orange-russet field that seems to predict Matisse's Red Studio - in fact Matisse once owned this painting, although he bought it from Degas's studio sale in 1918, long after his Red Studio was finished.

"Looking back from old age, Degas reflected that "perhaps I have thought about women as animals too much," but he had not - although he was certainly reproached for doing so. His "keyhole" bathers provoked the crisis of the Ideal Nude, whose last great exponent had been the man Degas most revered, Ingres. Yet their exquisite clarity of profile could not have been achieved without Ingres's example. In them, the great synthesis between two approaches that, thirty years before, had been considered the opposed poles of French art - Ingres's classical line, Delacroix's Romantic color - is achieved. There is no clearer instance of the way in which true innovators, such as Degas, do not "destroy" the past (as the mythology of avant-gardism insisted): they amplify it.

"In their novel Manette Salomon (1867) the Goncourts had Coriolis, an artist, reflect on "the feeling, the intuition for the contemporary, for the scene that rubs shoulders with you, for the present in which you sense the trembling of your emotions.... There must be found a line that would precisely render life, embrace from close at hand the individual, the particular - a living, human, inward line - a drawing truer than all drawing."

"Degas thinly disguised, you would think. But at the time, the Goncourts did not know Degas; they would come to meet him later. Neither, strangely enough, did Degas meet his literary parallel, Gustave Flaubert, whose Madame Bovary had made its scandalous and prosecuted debut in 1856 - although he had certainly read him. Flaubert's objectivity, his impassioned belief in "scientific" description as the instrument of social fiction, his acute sensitivity to class, his sardonic humor - all find their counterpart in Degas. And so does his attitude to the past as source and example, the springboard for invention in the present. "There must be no more archaisms, clichés," Flaubert wrote about the difficulty of prose. "Contemporary ideas must be expressed using the appropriate crude terms; everything must be as clear as Voltaire, as abrim with substance as Montaigne ... and always streaming with color." Read Ingres and Delacroix for Voltaire and Montaigne, and you have Degas in a nutshell.

"Nothing escaped his prehensile eye for the texture of life and the myriad gestures that reveal class and work. He made art from things that no painter had fully used before: the way a discarded dress, still warm from the now naked body, keeps some of the shape of its wearer; the unconcern of a dancer scratching her back between practice sessions (The Dance Class, 1873-76); the tension in a relationship between a man and a woman (Sulking, 1875-76) or the undercurrent of violence and domination in an affair (Interior, sometimes known as The Rape, 1868--69); a laundress's yawn, the stoned heaviness of an absinthe drinker's posture before the dull green phosphorescence of her glass, the exact port of a dandy's cane, the scrawny professional absorption of the petits rats of the ballet corps, the look in a whore's eye as she sizes up her client, the revealing clutter on a writer's desk. Even when painting themes from the Bible or from ancient history, as he often did in his early years, there were, as Henri Loyrette points out in the catalogue, "contemporary concerns beneath a thin archaeological veneer." His Scene of War in the Middle Ages, 1863-5, whose erotically charged women victims prefigure his bathers, refer to the brutality inflicted on women in New Orleans (where all his maternal family lived) by Union troops in the Civil War.

"Degas did not suddenly "become" a Realist. That was a myth propagated by his friends in the Impressionist circle at Batignolles, especially Édouard Manet, who implicitly claimed the credit for his conversion. What happened was more subtle: gradually this quintessential young bourgeois discovered what was to be seen from the eyeline of the bourgeoisie, but he raised his theater of social observation on the foundations of strict academic training in the mold of Ingres, whose precision he never lost. His eye for the instant gesture and socially revealing incident went with a lifelong habit of recycling poses and motifs, patching them in. Thus he can be very deceptive: the image that seems the freshest product of observation turns out to have been used half a dozen times before. Degas copied everything from Mantegna to Moghul miniatures, and even the work of lesser painters than himself; an artist, he said, should not be allowed to draw so much as a radish from life without the constant habit of drawing from the old masters. (By the same token, he was an avid collector of both old and new art: in his sixties he purchased two Gauguins, and when pushing eighty he remarked with some admiration of Cubism that "it seems even more difficult than painting." Allegory, in his early work, went with the desire to see freshly - and it would return in strange forms in his old age, as in the painting of a fallen jockey whose horse is clearly one of the steeds of the Apocalypse, or Russian Dancers, three women in clumping boots, locked together in a straining mass like Goya's witches. Both are present in his first real masterpiece, done in 1858 after he got back to Paris: The Bellelli Family, that marvelously observed group portrait of his neurotic aunt Laura, her lazy and distracted husband, Gennaro, and their two daughters. For although it is a tour de force of Realist observation - how much more concrete and present the Bellellis seem to us, surrounded by the furniture and other stuff of their lives, than the people on the neutral brown grounds Manet borrowed from Velázquez! - it is also an allegory, of family continuity under stress: the drawing on the wall behind Laura Bellelli is of Degas's grandfather Hilaire, and she is pregnant, so that four generations, not two, are present in the picture. And you cannot fail to associate this with Degas's own working methods, the sense of filiation and descent that would breathe through his work for the rest of his life, the past feeding into the present and then out into the future. Degas, the synthesizer of Ingres and Delacroix, would point - through the wild color-fields and direct manual touch of his later years - to a modernism that was not yet born."

- From Robert Hughes, "Nothing If Not Critical: Selected Essays on Art and Artists"

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DEGAS, Edgar Singer with a Glove c. 1878 Pastel and liquid medium on canvas 20 3/4 x 16 in. (52.8 x 41.1 cm) Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

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DEGAS, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Seated Dancer (Danseuse assise) c. 1879-80 Charcoal and pastel on paper mounted on pasteboard 25 x 19 1/8 in. (63.5 x 48.7 cm.) The Hermitage, St. Petersburg No. GR 155-99. Formerly collection Otto Krebs, Holzdorf

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DEGAS, Edgar Les repasseuses (Women Ironing) 1884 Oil on canvas 29 7/8 x 31 7/8 in. (76 x 81 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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DEGAS, Edgar The Rehearsal c. 1873-78 Oil on canvas 18 1/2 x 24 3/8 in. (41 x 61.7 cm) Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

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DEGAS, Edgar Race Horses 1885-1888 Pastel on panel 11 7/8 x 16 in. The Annenberg Collection

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DEGAS, Edgar Petite danseuse de quatorze ans, statuette en cire The Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer c. 1881 Wax, silk, satin ribbon, hair 39 in (99 cm) high Collection Mr and Mrs Paul Mellon, Upperville, VA

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DEGAS, Edgar Miss Lola, au Cirque Fernando (now known as La La at the Cirque Fernando, Paris) 1879 Oil on canvas 46 x 30 1/2 in. (117 x 77.5 cm) National Gallery, London

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DEGAS, Edgar L'absinthe 1876 Oil on canvas 36 1/4 x 26 3/4 in. (92 x 68 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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DEGAS, Edgar L'etoile OR La danseuse sur la scene (The Star OR Dancer on Stage) 1878 Pastel on paper 23 5/8 x 17 3/8 in. (60 x 44 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Degas, Edgar Portrait of a Young Woman 1867 Oil on canvas 10 5/8 x 8 5/8 in (27 x 22 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Degas, Edgar Dance School c. 1874 Oil and tempera on canvas 17 x 22 1/2 in. (43 x 57 cm) The Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont

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Degas, Edgar Woman at Her Toilette 1889 Pastel on paper 23 x 23 1/2 in. (59 x 60 cm) Hermitage, St Petersburg

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Degas, Edgar After the Bath c. 1879 Monotype in black ink on china paper, heightened with pastel 8 1/4 x 6 1/4 in. (21 x 15.9 cm) Private collection, New York

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Degas, Edgar Portrait of James Tissot Detail 1867-68 Oil on canvas 59 5/8 x 44 in (151.4 x 112 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Degas, Edgar Portrait of James Tissot 1867-68 Oil on canvas 59 5/8 x 44 in (151.4 x 112 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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DEGAS, Edgar Interior (The Rape) c. 1868-69 Oil on canvas 32 x 45 in. (81.28 x 114.3 cm) Philadelphia Museum of Art

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Degas, Edgar Le Defile Horses Before the Stands c. 1866-68 Essence on paper mounted on canvas 18 1/8 x 24 in (46 x 61 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Degas, Edgar Laundress (Silhouette) c. 1874 Oil on canvas 21 3/8 x 15 1/2 in (54.3 x 39.4 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Degas, Edgar Peasant Girls Bathing in the Sea at Dusk 1875-76 Oil on canvas 25 5/8 x 31 7/8 in (65 x 81 cm) Private collection, Northern Ireland

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Degas, Edgar Henri Rouart in Front of His Factory c. 1875 Oil on canvas 25 5/8 x 19 3/4 in (65 x 50 cm) Carnegie Institute Museum of Art

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Degas, Edgar Portrait, Evening (Madame Camus) 1869-70 Oil on canvas 28 5/8 x 36 1/4 in (72.7 x 92.1 cm) National Gallery of Art, Washington

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Degas, Edgar Jockeys Before the Race 1869-72 Oil, essence, with touches of pastel on paper 42 1/8 x 28 3/4 in. (107 x 73 cm) Barber Institute of Fine Arts, University of Birmingham

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Degas, Edgar Milliners 1882 Pastel on paper 19 x 27 in. (48.3 x 68.6 cm) The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City

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Degas, Edgar Mlle Fiocre in the Ballet "The Source" 1867-68 Oil on canvas 51 1/8 x 57 1/8 in (130 x 145 cm) The Brooklyn Museum

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DEGAS, Edgar Ballet Dancers in the Wings c. 1900 Pastel on paper 28 x 26 in. (71.1 x 66 cm) Saint Louis Art Museum, St. Louis

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Degas, Edgar The Dance Examination c. 1880 Pastel and charcoal on paper 24 15/16 x 18 15/16 in. (63.4 x 48.2 cm) Denver Art Museum

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Degas, Edgar Ecole de danse 1873 Oil on canvas 19 1/16 x 24 5/8 in. (48.3 x 62.5 cm) Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington

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Degas, Edgar Portrait de M. Duranty 1879 Tempera and pastel on canvas 39 3/8 x 39 3/8 in (100.6 x 100.6 cm) Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum

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Degas, Edgar Girl Drying Herself 1885 Pastel on paper 31 1/2 x 20 1/8 in. (80.1 x 51.2 cm) National Gallery of Art, Washington

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Degas, Edgar The Dance Lesson c. 1879 Oil on canvas 15 x 34 in. (38 x 86.3 cm) Private collection

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Degas, Edgar The Dance Class 1874 Oil on canvas 25 5/8 x 31 7/8 in (65 x 81 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Degas, Edgar Woman Combing Her Hair c. 1886 Pastel on cardboard 21 x 20 1/2 in. (53 x 52 cm) Hermitage, St Petersburg

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Degas, Edgar Laundresses Carrying Linen in Town c. 1876-78 Oil colors freely mixed with turpentine on paper mounted on canvas 18 x 24 in. (46 x 61 cm) Private collection

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Degas, Edgar Cabaret c. 1877 Pastel over monotype on paper 9 1/2 x 17 1/2 in. (24.1 x 44.5 cm) Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington

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Degas, Edgar Room in a Brothel c. 1879 Monotype in black ink on laid paper 8 1/4 x 6 1/4 in. (21 x 15.9 cm) Stanford University Museum of Art

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Degas, Edgar At the Stock Exchange c. 1879 Oil on canvas 39 3/8 x 32 1/4 in. (100 x 82 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Degas, Edgar A Woman Seated beside a Vase of Flowers 1865 Oil on canvas 29 x 36 1/2 in (73.7 x 92.7 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Degas, Edgar The Baker's Wife 1885 Pastel on paper 26 3/8 x 20 1/2 in. (67 x 52.1 cm) The Henry and Rose Pearlman Foundation

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Degas, Edgar Dancers Practicing at the Bar 1876-77 Oil colors freely mixed with turpentine, on canvas 29 3/4 x 32 in (75.6 x 81.3 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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DEGAS, Edgar La classe de danse (The Dancing class) c. 1873-75 Oil on canvas 33 1/2 x 29 1/2 in. (85 x 75 cm) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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DEGAS, Edgar The Cotton Exchange in New Orleans 1873 Oil on canvas 28 3/4 x 36 1/4 in. (73 x 92 cm) Musée Municipal de Pau, France

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DEGAS, Edgar Place de la Concorde 1875 Oil on canvas 30 7/8 x 46 1/4 in. (78.4 x 117.5 cm) No. 3K 1399 Formerly collection Gerstenberg/Scharf, Berlin Hermitage, St Petersburg

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DEGAS, Edgar Aux courses en province At the Races in the Country c. 1872 Oil on canvas 36.5 x 55.9 cm (14 3/8 x 22") Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

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DEGAS, Edgar Four Dancers c. 1899 Oil on canvas 151.1 x 180.2 cm (59 1/2 x 71 in.) National Gallery of Art, Washington

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Edgar Degas. Dance Class. 1874. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

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Edgar Degas. The Suffering of the City of New Orleans. !865. Oil on paper, mounted on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

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Edgar Degas. Girl Drying Herself. 1885. Pastel. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

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Edgar Degas. Before the Ballet. 1888. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

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Edgar Degas. Ballet Scene. 1907. Pastel in cardboard. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

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Edgar Degas. Dancers in the Old Opera House. 1877. Pastel. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Mademoiselle Malo. c. 1877. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

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Edgar Degas. Woman Ironing. 1882. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

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Edgar Degas. The Dead Fox. c. 1861-1864. Oil on canvas. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen, France.

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of the Artist James Tissot. 1867-68. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

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Edgar Degas. Young Woman Standing Next to a Table. c. 1867-68. Oil on canvas. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Algiers.

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Edgar Degas. Courtyard of a House in New Orleans. 1872. Oil on canvas. Kunstindustrimusset, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Edgar Degas. On the Racing Field. 1861. Oil on canvas. Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel, Switzerland

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Edgar Degas. Interior with Two People (Intérieur avec deux personnages). c. 1869. Oil on canvas. Collection of F. Simens, Berlin. Now in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Edgar Degas. Dancer (Danseuse). c. 1874. Oil on canvas. Collection of Otto Krebs. Now in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Edgar Degas. Sitting Dancer (Danseuse assise). c. 1879-80. Pastel and charcoal on paper mounted on cardbord. Collection of Otto Krebs, Holzdorf. Now in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Edgar Degas. Two Dancers.(Deux danseuse). c. 1898-99. Pastel and charcoal on paper. Collection of Otto Krebs. Now in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Edgar Degas. Place de la Concorde. Detail. 1876. Oil on canvas. Collection of Margarete Scharf, Berlin. Now in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Edgar Degas. Place de la Concorde. Detail. 1876. Oil on canvas. Collection of Margarete Scharf, Berlin. Now in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Degas

Edgar Degas. Place de la Concorde. Detail. 1876. Oil on canvas. Collection of Margarete Scharf, Berlin. Now in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Degas

Edgar Degas. Place de la Concorde. Detail. 1876. Oil on canvas. Collection of Margarete Scharf, Berlin. Now in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Edgar Degas. Cotton Dealers in New Orleans. 1873. oil on canvas. The Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

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Edgar Degas. Portraits in a New Orleans Cotton office. 1873. Oil on canvas. Musee des Beaux-Arts, Pau, USA

degas_Portrait_of_Estelle_Musson,_Madame_Rene_de_Gas

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Estelle Musson, Madame Rene de Gas. 1872-73. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

degas_The_Pedicurist

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Edgar Degas. The Pedicurist. 1873. Oil on paper, mounted on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_The_Song_Rehearsal

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Edgar Degas. The Song Rehearsal. 1872-73. Oil on canvas. Dumbarton Oaks Reseach Library and Collections, Washington, DC, USA.

degas_The_Absinthe_Drinker

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Edgar Degas. The Absinthe Drinker. 1875-76. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Portrait_of_Edmond_Duranty

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Edmond Duranty. 1879. Pastel and tempera. Glasgow Museums and Art Galleries, Glasgow, UK

degas_Bad_Mood

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Edgar Degas. Bad Mood. c.1869-71. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_Portrait_of_Hilaire_de_Gas

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Hilaire de Gas. 1857. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_The_Rape

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Edgar Degas. The Rape. Oil on canvas. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA

degas_Portrait_of_Monsieur_and_Madame_Edouard_Manet

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Monsieur and Madame Edouard Manet. c.1868-69. Oil on canvas. Municipal Museum of Art, Kitakyushu, Japan

degas_The_Orchestra_at_the_Opera_House

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Edgar Degas. The Orchestra at the Opera House. c.1870. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Orchestra_Musicians

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Edgar Degas. Orchestra Musicians. 1870-71. Oil on canvas. Stadtische Galerie im Stadelschen Kunsstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

degas_The_Star

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Edgar Degas. The Star. 1876-77. Pastel on monotype. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Race_Horses

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Edgar Degas. Race Horses. c.1866-68. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Carriage_at_the_Races

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Edgar Degas. Carriage at the Races. 1869. Oil on canvas. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA

degas_Gentlemen_Jockeys_before_the_Start

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Edgar Degas. Gentlemen Jockeys before the Start. 1862. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_At_the_Races,_Amateur_Jockeys

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Edgar Degas. At the Races, Amateur Jockeys. 1876-87. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Roman_Beggar_Woman

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Edgar Degas. Roman Beggar Woman. 1857. Oil on canvas. City Museum and Art Gallery, Burmingham, UK.

degas_Ballet_Scene

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Edgar Degas. Ballet Scene. c.1878-80. Pastel on monotype. Whereabouts unknown.

degas_Ballet_Rehearsal_on_Stage

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Edgar Degas. Ballet Rehearsal on Stage. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Dance_Class

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Edgar Degas. Dance Class. About 1871. Oil on wood. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_Dancing_Examination

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Edgar Degas. Dancing Examination. 1874. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_Ballet_Class

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Edgar Degas. Ballet Class. 1881. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA

degas_Cafe_Concert_Singer

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Edgar Degas. Cafe Concert Singer. 1878. Pastel on canvas. The Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

degas_At_the_Cafe_des_Ambassadeurs

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Edgar Degas. At the Cafe des Ambassadeurs. 1885. Pastel on etching. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_The_Green_Singer

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Edgar Degas. The Green Singer. c.1884. Pastel on blue paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_Two_Studies_of_Cafe_Concert_Singers

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Edgar Degas. Two Studies of Cafe Concert Singers. 1878-80. Pastel and charcoal on grey paper. Private collection.

degas_The_Bellelli_Family

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Edgar Degas. The Bellelli Family. 1858-67. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_The_Song_of_the_Dog

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Edgar Degas. The Song of the Dog. About 1876-77. Gouache and pastel on monotype. Private collection

degas_Mlle_La_La_at_the_Circus_Fernando

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Edgar Degas. Mlle La La at the Circus Fernando. 1879. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery, London, UK

degas_Woman_Ironing

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Edgar Degas. Woman Ironing. c.1869. Oil on canvas. Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany.

degas_Women_Ironing

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Edgar Degas. Women Ironing. c. 1884-86. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_At_the_Milliner's

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Edgar Degas. At the Milliner's. 1882. Pastel on grey paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_Lady_in_Town_Clothes

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Edgar Degas. Lady in Town Clothes. c. 1879. Pastel on grey paper. Walter Feilchenfeldt Collection, Zurich, Switzerland.

degas_Tired_Dancer

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Edgar Degas. Tired Dancer. c. 1882-85. Pastel. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX, USA

degas_Little_Fourteen-Year-Old_Dancer

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Edgar Degas. Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer. 1879/81. Bronze, painted in part, tulle skirt, satin bow, wooden stand. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA

degas_Great_Arabesque

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Edgar Degas. Great Arabesque. c. 1892-96. Bronze. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Dancer_Looking_at_her_Right_Foot

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Edgar Degas. Dancer Looking at her Right Foot. 1895-1910. Bronze. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_The_Collector

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Edgar Degas. The Collector. 1866. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_Little_Fourteen-Year-Old_Dancer

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Edgar Degas. Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer. 1879/81. Bronze, painted in part, tulle skirt, satin bow, wooden stand. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_Dancers_Practising_at_the_Bar

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Edgar Degas. Dancers Practising at the Bar. 1876-77. Mixed media on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_At_the_Beach

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Edgar Degas. At the Beach. 1876. Oil on paper. National Gallery, London, UK

degas_Landscape

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Edgar Degas. Landscape. Pastel. 1892. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX, USA.

degas_Coastal_Landscape

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Edgar Degas. Coastal Landscape. 1890-92. Pastel on monotype on colored paper. Galerie Jan Krugier, Geneva, Switzerland.

degas_The_Tub

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Edgar Degas. The Tub. 1885-86. Pastel on paper. Hill-Stead Museum, Farmington, CT, USA.

degas_Woman_Combing_Her_Hair

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Edgar Degas. Woman Combing Her Hair. 1888-90. Pastel on paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

degas_Portrait_of_Mary_Cassat

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Mary Cassat. c. 1880-84. Oil on canvas. National Portrait Gallery, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA

degas_The_Tub

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Edgar Degas. The Tub. 1886. Pastel on paper. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Portrait_of_Monsieur_and_Madame_Edmondo_Morbilli

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Monsieur and Madame Edmondo Morbilli. c.1865. Oil on canvas. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA

degas_Melancholy

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Edgar Degas. Melancholy. c. 1874. Oil on canvas. Phillips Collection, Washington, DC, USA.

degas_After_the_Bath

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Edgar Degas. After the Bath. 1884. Pastel on paper. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

degas_Woman_Combing_Her_Hair

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Edgar Degas. Woman Combing Her Hair. c.1885-86. Pastel on cardboard. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia

degas_Woman_at_Her_Toilette

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Edgar Degas. Woman at Her Toilette. 1889. Pastel on paper. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

degas_After_the_Bath

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Edgar Degas. After the Bath. Mid-1890s. Pastel, gouache with traces of charcoal and varnish on three hotisontal strips of grey paper pasted on cardboard. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

degas_Dancer_at_the_Photographer's

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Edgar Degas. Dancer at the Photographer's. 1870s Oil on canvas. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Art, Moscow, Russia

degas_After_Bath

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Edgar Degas. After Bath. c. 1892. Charcoal and pastel on paper. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Art, Moscow, Russia.

degas_The_Blue_Dancers

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Edgar Degas. The Blue Dancers. 1898-99. Pastel on paper. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Art, Moscow, Russia.

degas_Breaking-In

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Edgar Degas. Breaking-In. 1860s. Pastel on paper. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Art, Moscow, Russia.

degas_Self-Portrait

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Edgar Degas. Self-Portrait. c.1855. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Self-Portrait

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Edgar Degas. Self-Portrait. c.1863. Oil on canvas. Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, Portugal.

degas_Portrait_of _Thérèse_de_Gas,_the_Artist's_Sister

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Thérèse de Gas, the Artist's Sister. c.1863. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Portrait_of_Marguerite_de_Gas,_the_Artist's_Sister

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Marguerite de Gas, the Artist's Sister. 1858-1860. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Degas_and_Evariste_de_Valernes,_Painter_and_a_Friend_of_the_Artist

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Edgar Degas. Degas and Evariste de Valernes, Painter and a Friend of the Artist. c.1865. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Semiramis_Building_Babylon

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Edgar Degas. Semiramis Building Babylon. 1861. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Portrait_of_Louis-Marie_Pilet,_Violoncellist_in_the_Orchestra_of_the_Opera

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Louis-Marie Pilet, Violoncellist in the Orchestra of the Opera. 1868-69. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Lorenzo_Pagans_and_Auguste_de_Gas,_the_Artist's_Father

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Edgar Degas. Lorenzo Pagans and Auguste de Gas, the Artist's Father. c.1871-72. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_At_the_Stock_Exchange

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Edgar Degas. At the Stock Exchange. c.1878-1879. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Jeantaud,_Linet_and_Laine

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Edgar Degas. Jeantaud, Linet and Laine. 1871. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Woman_with_Porcelain_Vase

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Edgar Degas. Woman with Porcelain Vase. 1872. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Mme

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Edgar Degas. Mme. Jeantaud at the Mirror. c.1875. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Woman_with_Chrysanthemums

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Edgar Degas. Woman with Chrysanthemums. 1865. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA

degas_Women,_on_a_Cafe_Terrace

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Edgar Degas. Women, on a Cafe Terrace. 1877. Pastel. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Ballet_Rehearsal_on_the_Set

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Edgar Degas. Ballet Rehearsal on the Set. 1874. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Dancers_Climbing_a_Stair

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Edgar Degas. Dancers Climbing a Stair. c.1886-1890. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Harlequin_and_Colombine

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Edgar Degas. Harlequin and Colombine. c.1886-1890. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Blue_Dancers

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Edgar Degas. Blue Dancers. c.1890. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Nude_Wiping_Her_Foot

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Edgar Degas. Nude Wiping Her Foot. ca. 1885-86. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

degas_Woman_Combing_Her_Hair

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Edgar Degas. Woman Combing Her Hair. c.1897. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Bather_Streched_Out_on_the_Floor

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Edgar Degas. Bather Streched Out on the Floor. 1886-88. Pastel. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_At_the_Milliner's

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Edgar Degas. At the Milliner's. c.1898. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

degas_Spartan_Girls_Challenging_Boys

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Edgar Degas. Spartan Girls Challenging Boys. c.1860-62. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.

degas_Mme_Eugenie_Fiocre_in_the_Ballet_

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Edgar Degas. Mme Eugenie Fiocre in the Ballet "La Source". c. 1867-68. Oil on canvas. The Brooklyn Museum, New York, USA.

degas_The_Races

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Edgar Degas. The Races. Before the Start. 1873. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

degas_Race_Horses

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Edgar Degas. Race Horses. Pastel. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, USA.

degas_Six_Friends_of_the_Artists

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Edgar Degas. Six Friends of the Artists. 1885. Pastel on paper. Rhode Island School of Design, Museum of Art, Providence, RI, USA

degas_Portrait_of_Achille_de_Gas_in_the_Uniform_of_a_Cadet

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Achille de Gas in the Uniform of a Cadet. 1856/57. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

degas_Portrait_of_Madame_Dietz-Monnim

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Madame Dietz-Monnim. 1879. Pastel. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

degas_Portrait_of_Edmondo_and_Thérèse_Morbilli

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Edmondo and Thérèse Morbilli. 1865. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

degas_Girl_in_Red

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Edgar Degas. Girl in Red. c. 1866. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

degas_Portrait_of_Madame_Camus

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Edgar Degas. Portrait of Madame Camus. 1869-70. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

degas_Four_Dancers

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Edgar Degas. Four Dancers. About 1899. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.